Imaging mass spectrometry: a new tool for pathology in a molecular age.
Mass spectrometry (MS) provides unique advantages for the analysis of clinical specimens, and these capabilities have been critical to the advancement of diagnostic medicine. To date, LC-MS is the MS platform most commonly used for diagnostics; however, LC-MS based proteomics is very labor intensive and costly to implement for high volume assays. Furthermore, when analyzing tissue samples, additional laborious sample preparation steps must be employed (e.g. extraction methods or laser microdissection). The direct analysis of cells and tissues by MALDI imaging MS has developed significant momentum for applications that have diagnostic potential. MALDI imaging MS provides molecular information from specific cell types within tissue sections; however, this laser-based approach significantly reduces the analysis time for each location sampled. This Viewpoint discusses the technologies for direct analysis of tissues, the potential for diagnostic applications using MALDI imaging MS, and the challenges faced in the transfer of the technology to the clinical laboratory.