• Chang SC, Fedeles BI, Wu J, Delaney JC, Li D, Zhao L, Christov PP, Yau E, Singh V, Jost M, Drennan CL, Marnett LJ, Rizzo CJ, Levine SS, Guengerich FP, Essigmann JM. Next-generation sequencing reveals the biological significance of the N2,3-ethenoguanine lesion in vivo. Nucleic acids research. 2015 Apr 2. PMID: 25837992 [PubMed].


Etheno DNA adducts are a prevalent type of DNA damage caused by vinyl chloride (VC) exposure and oxidative stress. Etheno adducts are mutagenic and may contribute to the initiation of several pathologies; thus, elucidating the pathways by which they induce cellular transformation is critical. Although N(2),3-ethenoguanine (N(2),3-εG) is the most abundant etheno adduct, its biological consequences have not been well characterized in cells due to its labile glycosidic bond. Here, a stabilized 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyribose analog of N(2),3-εG was used to quantify directly its genotoxicity and mutagenicity. A multiplex method involving next-generation sequencing enabled a large-scale in vivo analysis, in which both N(2),3-εG and its isomer 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-εG) were evaluated in various repair and replication backgrounds. We found that N(2),3-εG potently induces G to A transitions, the same mutation previously observed in VC-associated tumors. By contrast, 1,N(2)-εG induces various substitutions and frameshifts. We also found that N(2),3-εG is the only etheno lesion that cannot be repaired by AlkB, which partially explains its persistence. Both εG lesions are strong replication blocks and DinB, a translesion polymerase, facilitates the mutagenic bypass of both lesions. Collectively, our results indicate that N(2),3-εG is a biologically important lesion and may have a functional role in VC-induced or inflammation-driven carcinogenesis.