Cyclooxygenase-2 catalyses the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid but also the biosynthesis of prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-Gs) from 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Previous studies identified PG-Gs as signalling molecules involved in inflammation. Thus, the glyceryl ester of prostaglandin E2, PGE2-G, mobilizes Ca(2+) and activates protein kinase C and ERK, suggesting the involvement of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). To identify the endogenous receptor for PGE2-G, we performed a subtractive screening approach where mRNA from PGE2-G response-positive and -negative cell lines was subjected to transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis. We found several GPCRs that are only expressed in the PGE2-G responder cell lines. Using a set of functional readouts in heterologous and endogenous expression systems, we identified the UDP receptor P2Y6 as the specific target of PGE2-G. We show that PGE2-G and UDP are both agonists at P2Y6, but they activate the receptor with extremely different EC50 values of ~1 pM and ~50 nM, respectively. The identification of the PGE2-G/P2Y6 pair uncovers the signalling mode of PG-Gs as previously under-appreciated products of cyclooxygenase-2.