• Brüser A, Zimmermann A, Crews BC, Sliwoski G, Meiler J, König GM, Kostenis E, Lede V, Marnett LJ, Schöneberg T. Prostaglandin E2 glyceryl ester is an endogenous agonist of the nucleotide receptor P2Y6. Scientific reports. 2017 May 24;7(1). 2380 p. PMID: 28539604 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC5443783.

Abstract 

Cyclooxygenase-2 catalyses the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid but also the biosynthesis of prostaglandin glycerol esters (PG-Gs) from 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Previous studies identified PG-Gs as signalling molecules involved in inflammation. Thus, the glyceryl ester of prostaglandin E2, PGE2-G, mobilizes Ca(2+) and activates protein kinase C and ERK, suggesting the involvement of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). To identify the endogenous receptor for PGE2-G, we performed a subtractive screening approach where mRNA from PGE2-G response-positive and -negative cell lines was subjected to transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis. We found several GPCRs that are only expressed in the PGE2-G responder cell lines. Using a set of functional readouts in heterologous and endogenous expression systems, we identified the UDP receptor P2Y6 as the specific target of PGE2-G. We show that PGE2-G and UDP are both agonists at P2Y6, but they activate the receptor with extremely different EC50 values of ~1 pM and ~50 nM, respectively. The identification of the PGE2-G/P2Y6 pair uncovers the signalling mode of PG-Gs as previously under-appreciated products of cyclooxygenase-2.