• Moore MC, Werner U, Smith MS, Farmer TD, Cherrington AD. Effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on postprandial hepatic glucose metabolism in the conscious dog. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism. 2013 Dec;305(12). E1473-82. PMID: 24148347 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC3882379.


The impact of the GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on postprandial glucose disposition was examined in conscious dogs to identify mechanisms for its improvement of meal tolerance in humans and examine the tissue disposition of meal-derived carbohydrate. Catheterization for measurement of hepatic balance occurred ≈16 days before study. After being fasted overnight, dogs received a subcutaneous injection of 1.5 μg/kg lixisenatide or vehicle (saline, control; n = 6/group). Thirty minutes later, they received an oral meal feeding (93.4 kJ; 19% protein, 71% glucose polymers, and 10% lipid). Acetaminophen was included in the meal in four control and five lixisenatide dogs for assessment of gastric emptying. Observations continued for 510 min; absorption was incomplete in lixisenatide at that point. The plasma acetaminophen area under the curve (AUC) in lixisenatide was 65% of that in control (P