• Gong Y, Ma Y, Sinyuk M, Loganathan S, Thompson RC, Sarkaria JN, Chen W, Lathia JD, Mobley BC, Clark SW, Wang J. Insulin-mediated signaling promotes proliferation and survival of glioblastoma through Akt activation. Neuro-oncology. 2016 Jan;18(1). 48-57. PMID: 26136493 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC4677408.

Abstract 

Metabolic complications such as obesity, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes are associated with poor outcomes in patients with glioblastoma. To control peritumoral edema, use of chronic high-dose steroids in glioblastoma patients is common, which can result in de novo diabetic symptoms. These metabolic complications may affect tumors via profound mechanisms, including activation of insulin receptor (InsR) and the related insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) in malignant cells.