- Dobruch J, Daneshmand S, Fisch M, Lotan Y, Noon AP, Resnick MJ, Shariat SF, Zlotta AR, Boorjian SA. Gender and Bladder Cancer: A Collaborative Review of Etiology, Biology, and Outcomes. European urology. 2015 Sep 4. PMID: 26346676 [PubMed].
The incidence of bladder cancer is three to four times greater in men than in women. However, women are diagnosed with more advanced disease at presentation and have less favorable outcomes after treatment.