• Grijalva CG, Wunderink RG, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Balk R, Fakhran S, Courtney DM, Anderson EJ, Qi C, Trabue C, Pavia AT, Moore MR, Jain S, Edwards KM, Self WH. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open forum infectious diseases. 2015 Dec;2(4). ofv135. PMID: 26512357 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC4621456.


During an etiology study of adults hospitalized for pneumonia, in which urine specimens were examined for serotype-specific pneumococcal antigen detection, we observed that some patients received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine before urine collection. Some urine samples became positive for specific vaccine pneumococcal serotypes shortly after vaccination, suggesting false-positive test results.