• Qian HZ, Ruan Y, Liu Y, Milam DF, L Spiegel HM, Yin L, Li D, Shepherd BE, Shao Y, Vermund SH. Lower HIV risk among circumcised men who have sex with men in China: Interaction with anal sex role in a cross-sectional study. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2015 Sep 21. PMID: 26413852 [PubMed].


Voluntary medical male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV heterosexual transmission in men, but its effect on male-to-male sexual transmission is uncertain.