• Garrison NA, Sathe NA, Antommaria AH, Holm IA, Sanderson SC, Smith ME, McPheeters ML, Clayton EW. A systematic literature review of individuals' perspectives on broad consent and data sharing in the United States. Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2015 Nov 19. PMID: 26583683 [PubMed].


In 2011, an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposed that de-identified human data and specimens be included in biobanks only if patients provide consent. The National Institutes of Health Genomic Data Sharing policy went into effect in 2015, requiring broad consent from almost all research participants.