• O'Connell CB, Tyska MJ, Mooseker MS. Myosin at work: motor adaptations for a variety of cellular functions. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2007 May;1773(5). 615-30. PMID: 16904206 [PubMed].


Cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to overcome the effects of entropy and diffusion to create a highly ordered environment. For cells to function properly, some components must be anchored to provide a framework or structure. Others must be rapidly transported over long distances to generate asymmetries in cell morphology and composition. To accomplish long-range transport, cells cannot rely on diffusion alone as many large organelles and macromolecular complexes are essentially immobilized by the dense meshwork of the cytosol. One strategy used by cells to overcome diffusion is to harness the free energy liberated by ATP hydrolysis through molecular motors. Myosins are a family of actin based molecular motors that have evolved a variety of ways to contribute to cellular organization through numerous modifications to the manner they convert that free energy into mechanical work.