• Bruehl S, Burns JW, Passik SD, Gupta R, Buvanendran A, Chont M, Schuster E, Orlowska D, France CR. The Contribution of Differential Opioid Responsiveness to Identification of Opioid Risk in Chronic Pain Patients. The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. 2015 Jul;16(7). 666-75. PMID: 25892658 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC4486517. NIHMSID: NIHMS682033.

Abstract 

The Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised (SOAPP-R) predicts increased risk of opioid misuse in chronic pain patients. We evaluated whether higher SOAPP-R scores are associated with greater opioid reinforcing properties, potentially contributing to their predictive utility. Across 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions, 55 chronic low back pain sufferers completed the SOAPP-R at baseline and measures of back pain intensity, evoked pain responsiveness (thermal, ischemic), and subjective opioid effects after receiving intravenous morphine (.08 mg/kg) or saline placebo. Morphine effect measures were derived for all outcomes, reflecting the difference between morphine and placebo condition values. Higher SOAPP-R scores were significantly associated with greater desire to take morphine again, less feeling down and feeling bad, and greater reductions in sensory low back pain intensity following morphine administration. This latter effect was due primarily to SOAPP-R content assessing medication-specific attitudes and behavior. Individuals exceeding the clinical cutoff (18 or higher) on the SOAPP-R exhibited significantly greater morphine liking, desire to take morphine again, and feeling sedated; less feeling bad; and greater reductions in sensory low back pain following morphine. The SOAPP-R may predict elevated opioid risk in part by tapping into individual differences in opioid reinforcing effects.