• Patrick SW, Davis MM, Lehmann CU, Lehman CU, Cooper WO. Increasing incidence and geographic distribution of neonatal abstinence syndrome: United States 2009 to 2012. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. 2015 Aug;35(8). 650-5. PMID: 25927272 [PubMed]. PMCID: PMC4520760. NIHMSID: NIHMS672061.

Abstract 

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), a postnatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, increased threefold from 2000 to 2009. Since 2009, opioid pain reliever prescriptions and complications increased markedly throughout the United States. Understanding recent changes in NAS and its geographic variability would inform state and local governments in targeting public health responses.