Profilin-Mediated Actin Allocation Regulates the Growth of Epithelial Microvilli
- PMID: 31607529 [PubMed].
Transporting epithelial cells, like those that line the intestinal tract, are specialized for solute processing and uptake. One defining feature is the brush border, an array of microvilli that serves to amplify apical membrane surface area and increase functional capacity. During differentiation, upon exit from stem-cell-containing crypts, enterocytes build thousands of microvilli, each supported by a parallel bundle of actin filaments several microns in length. Given the high concentration of actin residing in mature brush borders, we sought to determine whether enterocytes were resource (i.e., actin monomer) limited in assembling this domain. To examine this possibility, we inhibited Arp2/3, the ubiquitous branched actin nucleator, to increase G-actin availability during brush border assembly. In native intestinal tissues, Arp2/3 inhibition led to increased microvilli length on the surface of crypt, but not villus, enterocytes. In a cell culture model of brush border assembly, Arp2/3 inhibition accelerated the growth and increased the length of microvilli; it also led to a redistribution of F-actin from cortical lateral networks into the brush border. Effects on brush border growth were rescued by treatment with the G-actin sequestering drug, latrunculin A. G-actin binding protein, profilin-1, colocalized in the terminal web with G-actin, and knockdown of this factor compromised brush border growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, the acceleration in brush border assembly induced by Arp2/3 inhibition was abrogated by profilin-1 knockdown. Thus, brush border assembly is limited by G-actin availability, and profilin-1 directs unallocated actin monomers into microvillar core bundles during enterocyte differentiation.